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Contents

  1. Combat | Skeptical Analysis

Militants have also committed crimes. According to Hon. Edolphus Towns of the American House of Representatives, around 90, Kashmiri Muslims have been killed by the Indian government since Of these, 21, are militants, 13, civilians killed by militants, 3, civilians killed by security forces, and 5, policemen killed by militants, according to the Jammu and Kashmir government data.

Several international agencies and the UN have reported human rights violations in Indian-administered Kashmir. In a press release the OHCHR spokesmen stated "The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is concerned about the recent violent protests in Indian-administered Kashmir that have reportedly led to civilian casualties as well as restrictions to the right to freedom of assembly and expression.

Another such alleged massacre occurred on 6 January in the town of Sopore. TIME magazine described the incident as such: "In retaliation for the killing of one soldier, paramilitary forces rampaged through Sopore's market, setting buildings ablaze and shooting bystanders. The Indian government pronounced the event 'unfortunate' and claimed that an ammunition dump had been hit by gunfire, setting off fires that killed most of the victims. However, the accused are still to be punished.

Indian security forces claim they are fighting to protect Kashmiris from militants and Islamic extremists, while militants claim they are fighting for Kashmiri independence and to defend Muslim Kashmiris from an abusive Indian army. In reality, both sides have committed widespread and numerous human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law or the laws of war. Many human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch HRW have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as "extra-judicial executions", "disappearances", and torture.

Indian officials claim that troops need such powers because the army is only deployed when national security is at serious risk from armed combatants. Such circumstances, they say, call for extraordinary measures. Human rights organisations have also asked the Indian government to repeal [] the Public Safety Act, since "a detainee may be held in administrative detention for a maximum of two years without a court order. Some human rights organisations have alleged that Indian Security forces have killed hundreds of Kashmiris through the indiscriminate use of force and torture, firing on demonstrations, custodial killings, encounters and detentions.

There have been claims of disappearances by the police or the army in Kashmir by several human rights organisations. This state action was reportedly denounced by the former National Chief Information Commissioner. The Indian state police confirms as many as deaths while in custody and enforced disappearances since Indian security forces have assaulted civilians during search operations, tortured and summarily executed detainees in custody and murdered civilians in reprisal attacks. Rape most often occurs during crackdowns, cordon-and-search operations during which men are held for identification in parks or schoolyards while security forces search their homes.

In these situations, the security forces frequently engage in collective punishment against the civilian population, most frequently by beating or otherwise assaulting residents, and burning their homes. Rape is used as a means of targetting women whom the security forces accuse of being militant sympathizers; in raping them, the security forces are attempting to punish and humiliate the entire community.

The allegation of mass rape incidents as well as forced disappearances are reflected in a Kashmiri short documentary film by an Independent Kashmiri film-maker, the Ocean of Tears produced by a non-governmental non-profit organisation called the Public Service Broadcasting Trust of India and approved by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting India. The film depicts mass rape incidents in Kunan Poshpora and Shopian as facts and alleges that Indian Security Forces were responsible.

Dr Seema Kazi holds the security forces more responsible for raping than militants due to rape by the former being larger in scale and frequency. In areas of militant activity the security forces use rape to destroy morale of Kashmiri resistance. In the particular context of Kashmir where an ethnic Muslim minority population is subject to the repressive dominance of a predominantly Hindu State, the sexual appropriation of Kashmiri women by State security forces exploits the cultural logic of rape whereby the sexual dishonour of individual women is coterminous with the subjection and subordination of Kashmiri men and the community at large.

Former Chief Justice of Jammu and Kashmir High Court noted in his report on human rights in Kashmir: "It is hard to escape the conclusion that the security forces who are overwhelmingly Hindu and Sikh, see it as their duty to beat an alien population into submission. Some surveys have found that in the Kashmir region itself where the bulk of separatist and Indian military activity is concentrated , popular perception holds that the Indian Armed Forces are more to blame for human rights violations than the separatist groups.

Amnesty International criticized the Indian Military regarding an incident on 22 April , when several armed forces personnel forcibly entered the house of a year-old woman in the village of Wawoosa in the Rangreth district of Jammu and Kashmir. They reportedly molested her year-old daughter and raped her other three daughters, aged 14, 16, and When another woman attempted to prevent the soldiers from attacking her two daughters, she was beaten. Soldiers reportedly told her year-old daughter to remove her clothes so that they could check whether she was hiding a gun. They molested her before leaving the house.

Pakistan remains accountable for abuses committed by militants that it has armed and trained. Our people were killed. I saw a girl tortured with cigarette butts. Another man had his eyes pulled out and his body hung on a tree. The armed separatists used a chainsaw to cut our bodies into pieces. It wasn't just the killing but the way they tortured and killed.

The violence was condemned and labelled as ethnic cleansing in a resolution passed by the United States Congress. According to the same resolution, since then nearly , Pandits were either murdered or forced to leave their ancestral homes. According to a Hindu American Foundation report, the rights and religious freedom of Kashmiri Hindus have been severely curtailed since , when there was an organised and systematic campaign by Islamist militants to cleanse Hindus from Kashmir.

Less than 4, Kashmiri Hindus remain in the valley, reportedly living with daily threats of violence and terrorism. On one hand the community did face intimidation and violence but on the other hand he says there was no genocide or mass murder as suggested by Pandits who are based outside of Kashmir. The displaced Pandits, many of whom continue to live in temporary refugee camps in Jammu and Delhi, are still unable to safely return to their homeland.

Reportedly, organisations trained and armed by the ISI continued this ethnic cleansing until practically all the Kashmiri Pandits were driven out after having been subjected to numerous indignities and brutalities such as rape of their women, torture, forcible seizure of property etc. The separatists in Kashmir deny these allegations. The Indian government is also trying to reinstate the displaced Pandits in Kashmir. Tahir, the district commander of a separatist Islamic group in Kashmir, stated: "We want the Kashmiri Pandits to come back.

They are our brothers. We will try to protect them. He says the plan was to leave Muslims alone and bulldoze them freely. Harvardian Mehboob Makhdoomi writes that human rights violations in Pakistani administered part of Kashmir are not comparable with human rights violations in Indian administered Kashmir. Claims of religious discrimination and restrictions on religious freedom in Azad Kashmir have been made against Pakistan. In , Human Rights Watch accused ISI and the military of systemic torture with the purpose of "punishing" errant politicians, political activists and journalists in Azad Kashmir.

After the elections, Azad Kashmir Prime Minister Sardar Attique Ahmad Khan stated that there were mistakes in the voters list which have raised questions about the credibility of the elections. The area is ruled directly through a chief executive Lt. They are not granted equal rights under the law, and their educational opportunities and choice of marriage partner remain "circumscribed".

Domestic violence, forced marriage, and other forms of abuse continue to be issues of concern. In May , the United Nations and other aid agencies temporarily suspended their work after suspected Islamists mounted an arson attack on the home of two aid workers after the organisations had received warnings against hiring women. However, honour killings and rape occur less frequently than in other areas of Pakistan. Scholar Sumantra Bose comments that the uprising remained restricted to the Indian side and did not spill over into Pakistani-administered Kashmir despite a lack of democratic freedoms on the Pakistani side.

Bose offers a number of possible explanations for this. Azad Kashmir's strong pro-Pakistan allegiances and a relatively smaller population are suggested as reasons. But Bose believes that a stronger explanation was that Pakistan had itself been a military-bureaucratic state for most of its history without stable democratic institutions.

According to Bose, the Kashmiri Muslims had higher expectations from India which turned out to be a "moderately successful" democracy and it was in this context that Kashmiri Muslim rage spilled over after the rigging of the elections in The main demand of the people of Gilgit-Baltistan is constitutional status for the region as a fifth province of Pakistan. The region's inhabitants are embittered by Islamabad's unwillingness to devolve powers in real terms to its elected representatives, and a nationalist movement, which seeks independence, is gaining ground. The rise of sectarian extremism is an alarming consequence of this denial of basic political rights".

In , the Pakistani government implemented an autonomy package for Gilgit-Baltistan, which entails rights similar to those of Pakistan's other provinces. According to Antia Mato Bouzas, the PPP-led Pakistani government had attempted a compromise between its official position on Kashmir and the demands of a population where the majority may have pro-Pakistan sentiments.

There has been criticism and opposition to this move in Pakistan, India, and Pakistan-administered Kashmir. As with other disputed territories, each government issues maps depicting their claims in Kashmir territory, regardless of actual control. Due to India's Criminal Law Amendment Act, , it is illegal in India to exclude all or part of Kashmir from a map or to publish any map that differs from those of the Survey of India.

Non-participants often use the Line of Control and the Line of Actual Control as the depicted boundaries, as is done in the CIA World Factbook , while the region is often marked out in hashmarks. When Microsoft released a map in Windows 95 and MapPoint , a controversy arose because it did not show all of Kashmir as part of India as per the Indian claim.

India continues to assert its sovereignty or rights over the entire region of Kashmir, while Pakistan maintains that it is a disputed territory. Unofficially, the Pakistani leadership has indicated that they would be willing to accept alternatives such as a demilitarised Kashmir, if sovereignty of Azad Kashmir was to be extended over the Kashmir valley, or the "Chenab" formula, by which India would retain parts of Kashmir on its side of the Chenab river, and Pakistan the other side—effectively re-partitioning Kashmir on communal lines.

The problem with the proposal is that the population of the Pakistan-administered portion of Kashmir is for the most part ethnically, linguistically, and culturally different from the Valley of Kashmir , a part of Indian-administered Kashmir. Partition based on the Chenab formula is opposed by some Kashmiri politicians, although others, including Sajjad Lone , have suggested that the non-Muslim part of Jammu and Kashmir be separated from Kashmir and handed to India.

These events put pressure on Pakistan to alter its position on terrorism. These have been the respective stands of the parties for a long while, and there have been no significant changes over the years. As a result, all efforts to solve the conflict have so far proved futile. Revelations made on 24 September by the former Indian army chief General V. Singh claim that the state politicians of Jammu and Kashmir are funded by the army secret service to keep the general public calm and that this activity has been going on since Partition. The Freedom in the World report categorised Indian-administered Kashmir as "partly free", and Pakistan-administered Kashmir, as well as the country of Pakistan, as "not free".

The Kashmir earthquake , which killed over 80, people, led to India and Pakistan finalising negotiations for the opening of a road for disaster relief through Kashmir. In , General Musharraf, as well as other Pakistani leaders, sought to resolve the Kashmir issue through the Chenab Formula road map. In the week of 10 March , 17 people were wounded when a blast hit the region's only highway overpass located near the civil secretariat—the seat of government of Indian-controlled Kashmir—and the region's high court.

A gun battle between security forces and militants fighting against Indian rule left five people dead and two others injured on 23 March The battle began when security forces raided a house on the outskirts of the capital city of Srinagar housing militants. The Indian Army has been carrying out cordon-and-search operations against militants in Indian-administered Kashmir since the violence broke out in While the authorities say 43, people have been killed in the violence, various human rights groups and non-governmental organisations have put the figure at twice that number.

According to the Government of India Home Ministry, was the year with the lowest civilian casualties in 20 years, with 89 deaths, compared to a high of 1, in The human rights situation improved, with only one custodial death, and no custodial disappearances. Many analysts say Pakistan's preoccupation with jihadis within its own borders explains the relative calm. Massive demonstrations occurred after plans by the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir state government to transfer acres 0.

Such demonstrations have been aloof of the fact that the India government very regularly undertakes activities for upliftment of Muslim community as a secular government and very regularly donates lands and other properties to the systemized Waqf Boards. Indian security forces and the Indian army responded quickly to keep order. More than 40 unarmed protesters were killed [] [] and at least were detained. Separatists and political party workers were believed to be behind stone-throwing incidents, which have led to retaliatory fire from the police.

Following the unrest in , secessionist movements got a boost. State elections were held in Indian administered Kashmir in seven phases, starting on 17 November and finishing on 24 December In , protests started over the alleged rape and murder of two young women in Shopian in South Kashmir. Suspicion pointed towards the police as the perpetrators. A judicial enquiry by a retired High Court official confirmed the suspicion, but a CBI enquiry reversed their conclusion. This gave fresh impetus to popular agitation against India.

Significantly, the unity between the separatist parties was lacking this time. The All Parties Hurriyat Conference made this call to protest, citing human rights abuses by Indian troops. Protesters shouted pro-independence slogans, defied curfews, attacked security forces with stones and burnt police vehicles and government buildings. The protests subsided after the Indian government announced a package of measures aimed at defusing the tensions in September The EU would like to congratulate India and its democratic system for conduct of fair elections, unmarred by violence, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir".

In October , Indian and Pakistani troops traded gunfire over their border in the divided Himalayan region of Kashmir, killing at least four civilians and worsening tensions between the longtime rivals, officials on both sides have said. The small-arms and mortar exchanges — which Indian officials called the worst violation of a ceasefire — left 18 civilians wounded in India and another three in Pakistan. Tens of thousands of people fled their homes on both sides after the violence erupted on 5 October. Official reports state that nine civilians in Pakistan and seven in India were killed in three nights of fighting.

On 8 July , a militant leader Burhan Muzaffar Wani was cornered by the security forces and killed. Following his death, protests and demonstrations have taken root leading to an "amplified instability" in the Kashmir valley. Curfews have been imposed in all 10 districts of Kashmir and over civilians died and over 17, injured in clashes with the police.

To prevent volatile rumours, cellphone and internet services have been blocked, and newspapers have also been restricted in many parts of the state. An attack by four militants on an Indian Army base on 18 September , also known as the Uri attack , resulted in the death of 19 soldiers as well as the militants themselves.

Although no-one claimed responsibility for the attack, the militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed was suspected of involvement by the Indian authorities. The Indians were particularly shaken by the event which they blamed on Islamabad. Response took various forms, including the postponement of the 19th SAARC summit , asking the Russian government to call off a joint military exercise with Pakistan, [] and the Indian Motion Picture Producers Association decision to suspend work with Pakistan. On the Pakistani side, military alertness was raised and some Pakistan International Airlines flights suspended.

The Pakistani government "denied any role in cross-border terrorism, and called on the United Nations and the international community to investigate atrocities it alleged have been committed by the security forces in Indian-ruled Kashmir". In the deadliest incident since , Kashmir separatist terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammed JEM carried and claimed responsibility for a suicide bomb attack on a military convoy that killed over 40 Indian soldiers on 14 February As India trespassed Pakistan's air space, the incidents escalated the tension between India and Pakistan starting the India—Pakistan standoff.

In August , as Home Minister Amit Shah of India told parliament, a decree abolishing Article of the constitution that gave a measure of autonomy to the Muslim-majority Himalayan region had been signed by president and measure came into force "at once". Blake, Jr. That Government of India and Pakistan should make a joint request to U. Nehru's statement in the Indian Parliament, 26 June []. I want to stress that it is only the people of Kashmir who can decide the future of Kashmir.

It is not that we have merely said that to the United Nations and to the people of Kashmir; it is our conviction and one that is borne out by the policy that we have pursued, not only in Kashmir but every where. I started with the presumption that it is for the people of Kashmir to decide their own future. We will not compel them. In that sense, the people of Kashmir are sovereign.

In his statement in the Lok Sabha on 31 March as published in Hindustan Times on 1 April , Pandit Nehru said, "Kashmir is perhaps the most difficult of all these problems between India and Pakistan. We should also remember that Kashmir is not a thing to be bandied between India and Pakistan but it has a soul of its own and an individuality of its own. Nothing can be done without the goodwill and consent of the people of Kashmir. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. India—Pakistan conflict over the Kashmir region. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.

Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. August Indo-Pakistani conflicts. Kashmir conflict War of War of War of Siachen conflict Kargil War —02 standoff standoff Border skirmishes —15 —18 Strikes Balakot Jammu and Kashmir Further information: Timeline of the Kashmir conflict. See also: History of Kashmir and Jammu and Kashmir princely state. Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of Main article: UN mediation of the Kashmir dispute. Main article: Sino-Indian War. Main article: Political movements in Kashmir during the Dogra rule.

Main article: Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election. Main article: Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. Main article: Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus. This section may be too long and excessively detailed. Please consider summarizing the material while citing sources as needed. Main article: Kargil War. Main article: Al-Qaeda. See also: Allegations of support system in Pakistan for Osama bin Laden.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Origins of the Sino-Indian border dispute. See also: Line of Control and Siachen Conflict. Main article: Human rights abuses in Kashmir.

Main article: Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir. Further information: Rape in the Kashmir conflict. Main article: Human rights abuses in Azad Kashmir. See also: Peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir. Main article: Amarnath land transfer controversy.

Main article: Jammu and Kashmir state assembly elections. Main article: Kashmir Unrest. Main article: Kashmir unrest. Main article: Uri attack. Main article: India—Pakistan standoff. Main article: Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, India portal Pakistan portal. The Government of India could have easily accepted the accession and said, 'All right, we accept your accession and we shall render this help.

He was insistent that the Government could not send its forces at the request of the Maharaja "although he wanted to accede to India," unless the accession was endorsed by the people of Kashmir Sheikh Abduallah who was listening to the debate from an anteroom scribbled a note for Nehru requesting him to send the army to save Kashmir from the invaders.

My Life and Times. Allied Publishers Limited. Retrieved 1 July On the battlefield, the National Conference volunteers were working shoulder-to-shoulder with the Indian army to drive out the invaders Sheikh Abdullah was not in favor of India seeking the UN intervention because he was sure the Indian army could free the entire State of the invaders. It looks as if he may now have lost his chance. Graham's recommendation, Pakistan once more accepted and India once more refused Graham met the Indian request for retaining in Kashmir 21, men, but continued to propose 6, soldiers on the Azad side.

Pakistan could not accept the first provision and India continued to insist on its stand concerning the Azad forces. The meeting, which ended in failure, was accompanied by bitter comments in the newspapers of both India and Pakistan about United Nations intervention in the Kashmir dispute. The Security Council did not deal with either of these arguments [India's assumption of the legal validity of the accession and Pakistan's refusal to recognize its validity]. Nor did it consider the possibility of asking the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion on the juridical aspect of the conflict under Article 96 of the Charter.

Nor did it invoke any provisions of Chapter VII of the Charter, which deals with 'acts of aggression'. Ankit , p. Any prestige I may previously have had with my Government has of course been largely lost by my having insisted that they should make a reference to the United Nations with the assurance that they would get a square deal there. Pakistan's Relations with India: — Indian leaders Pakistan's resentment Alleged talk of 'holy war' or Jehad referred to the disputed territory of Kashmir.

But in India, leaders, press and even scholars had no hesitation in expressing the hope of undoing the partition and thus annihilating Pakistan. Choudhury, Golam Most of those quotations related to the period after the signing of the Liaquat-Nehru Agreement of April 8, under which India and Pakistan undertook not to permit propaganda in either country The government of Pakistan initiated twenty-seven complaints of flagrant violation of the Agreement by a number of influential Indian newspapers, but no effective action was taken by the Indian government, the plea being that its scope for action was limited by the India constitution.

The Pakistan government pointed out that, if this were the position, the government of India should not have undertaken an international obligations which it was not in a position to carry out. The government of India made only eight complaints about alleged violation of the Agreement.

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Combat | Skeptical Analysis

Liaquat drew attention to the continuous and blatant propaganda for war against Pakistan, and indeed for the very liquidation of Pakistan, carried on by the Indian press, prominent leaders and political parties which openly adopted as an article of creed the undoing of partition. No doubt there had been talk of Jehad or liberation of the Muslim population of Kashmir in Pakistan but Pakistan's grievances have always been confined to Kashmir which It was wrong to construe expressions giving vent to feelings of frustration over the failure of peaceful methods of solution in Kashmir as a desire for war against India.

But, in India, the creation of Pakistan itself is still regarded as a tragic mistake which ought to be corrected. This is against us completely. I am not referring to Pakistan which has grown madly hysterical. If this hysteria continued, it would inevitably produce reactions in Kashmir among the pro-Pakistani elements and their sympathisers.

The result would be no period of quiet at all and constant trouble. But for some kind of an agreement between us and Pakistan, the matter would inevitably have been raised in the U. All this again would have kept the agitation alive and made it grow. This year's Urs Celebration was hosted by the Ruhaniat, and the Pilgrimage took many forms, all under the masterful guidance of Pir Shabda and Pirani Tamam, with tremendous earthplane support from Basira and Waduda.

East and West continue to meet gracefully, as a response to the cry of humanity. I am in a rather sensitive state, after a long meditation at the Dargah, and I am watching the bustle, a little dazed by the intense chaos, the vendors, the smells, the colors in the neighborhood.

I see a group of children in rags, hovering around some young mothers begging, holding their babies out as proof of their need. The children have a lost and desperate look on their faces. There are open sores on their tiny bony arms. I am feeling deeply the sadness of their plight, when I notice another group of young children carrying book-bags, cleanly dressed, their faces scrubbed, their bright eyes smiling. They move with concentration, and they enter a large stone building, fifty yards up the street from the Dargah. I look up and see a sign on the building: The Hope Project.

So this is the Hope Project. Over the next few days I spend time visiting The Hope Project. It is an amazing response to the cry of humanity. I visit a health clinic, with many folks waiting for medical care. I visit a childcare center, where babies are lovingly watched so their mothers are able to work. I visit a kitchen where teenage girls are baking bread and cakes which are sold all around Delhi. A German donor has designed and built a water purifcation system for the whole building. There are volunteers from all around the planet. The Hope Project is really some kind of miracle.

It serves only the poorest children and families of the Basti, and it serves them well. Besides education, and food, and healthcare, there are classes in movement and exercise, and job skills training, all free. I am so happy and proud that our Sufi family is engaged in this love in action. These smiling children have truly been rescued and given hope. Planning has gone forward and work on the site has begun! Murshid Sam had the unique ability when visiting the shrines of saints in the East to empty himself and receive their direct guidance.

Before his passing he predicted that his own resting place would become just such a touchstone, a place where pilgrims could receive guidance and answers to Life's question. For his disciples, he stressed the importance of creating such shrines and pilgrimage places in America. I feel Murshid guiding us to create this shrine on Lama Mountain. In , following compelling inner guidance, I approached Lama Foundation to gain permission to build a proper shrine on Murshid Sam's grave.

Taking a solitary retreat by Murshid Sam's grave, and not being able to sit as his gravesite for more than a few minutes because of the intense sun at feet, confirmed the inspiration as a way to provide shade and beauty at Murshid Sam's Dargah, in order to be able to spend quality time there. When I first went to Hazrat Inayat Khan's Dargah in Mother India in it was also open air, open to the sky, and quite unusable for more than a short visit because of the elements.

For past several decades now, Hazrat Inayat Khan's Dargah is beautifully fashioned with a protective dome, and it is very accommodating for even large groups of pilgrims to be there for long periods. Naturally, I wish the same for Murshid Sam's Dargah! Dear Friends, About a month ago, a small band of pilgrims set out to experience the sacred sites of New Orleans.

With Mardi Gras season now over, this tale should be told. Our weekend began with a shabbos gathering. Made us remember our brothers and sisters, who were just starting to gather for the URS celebration in Delhi. Saturday had us digging into Sufi practice and teachings all day. We had a long Zikr that went late into the night. Old and new friends came out, even in the strange frosty weather. Sunday warmed up considerably, as our caravan headed into the city to taste dawq in Sufi terms. Famous for their beignets and cafe au lait.

They were crowded so we went down the street to another coffee place. On to the Mississippi river, the source. Then it was over to the great St. Louis Cathedral in Jackson Square. Mass had started, so we mediated in the sun on the grassy lawn. Met some amazing people there,coincidence being one of the hallmarks of Sufis on pilgrimage. We stopped at the slave exchange, made some estaferallah's and healing prayers.

We gazed across the street at the hotel where Napoleon stayed. Are we really in America? We stopped for halal hot dogs with brother Nasir, on our way to Congo Square, our final destination. Congo Square originally was the spot where the Houmas Indians would celebrate their corn harvest, and was considered sacred ground. By the late 's Congo Square became famous for the gatherings of enslaved Africans who drummed, danced, sang, traded and courted on Sunday afternoons.

The was the only place Africans could play their drums openly in North America. Because they were French slaves, they got Sunday off. Congo Square was the origin of the great American music experience. Baba Luther and Mama Jamila are the present caretakers of the Sunday afternoon gatherings. I slowed down my pace as we stepped in, feeling the strong ancestor vibe in the square. There is a grand old tree that stood at the time of the slave gatherings there. Our group added to the offerings being made to her. Flowers, candles, a picture of Hazrat Inayat Khan. First person I meet is one of the Congo Square Society helpers, she is from Kansas City.

Starting to feel tuned in. Mostly an African-American crowd, with a few tourists, locals and young Muslim women wearing head scarves and holding big cameras. A bunch of drummers, one PA speaker and one microphone. We start with prayers, Libation offerings Ashay, Ashay. Call and Response. Baba Luther, Amina Rae and I speak a little bit. I'm thinking, " I will follow this with? Ok, got it. Sweet, sweet sounds. Followed by my KC pal Amory on the violin. We form circles across the way.

A dread-locked Jazz trumpet player dressed all in white, steps into the center to blow. Here we go. I had spoken earlier to how some of America's first Muslims came through this port, and from the local pirate groups. Many thanks to Peter Lamborn Wilson for his research in this area. But as the drummers led us in another piece, my thoughts went to his holiness the Dalai Lama who had recently been in town.

There were prayer flags everywhere. So of course an Om Mani Padme Hum dance next seemed appropriate. Then Baba Luther says,"lets do one together". I was ready for this. I instructed the drummers,Amina Rae offered a movement to the dancers and we were off. Then, as if sent by some cosmic central casting, a big guy on a bike rides up and grabs the mike.

A hype boy starts to pump the crowd. Big Chief!! Then while slapping his tambourine, about improvised verses of Mardi Gras Indian tunes and a few more suras. Ancestor Sky People indeed. Baba Luther asks if we can,"make one more big circle, and a final prayer? Our work on this good American soil is done for today, lets get some gumbo.

In the past, the Ruhaniat was able to cover these expenses for them. Through your donations, we hope to ease the financial burden for them —— it is a meaningful way that we can show our appreciation to them for their service to us, the Ruhaniat, and the Sufi Message. Your donations are tax deductible! Thank you for your generous offering, no amount is too small, every contribution helps. Your webmaster is very grateful for the support and guidance of our SRI technology team, including particularly Farrunissa Rosa and Basira Beardsworth as site content managers, Azim Briese and Yusuf Schuman, with the help and encouragement of Pir Shabda and many other contributors.

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All praise to the One! Sufi Ruhaniat International is incorporated in the US as a c 3 organization. These Centers have met the criteria to operate as affiliates of our corporation:. Visit the Hope Project web site. From its very humble beginnings as a program to provide milk to the children of the basti the very old neighborhood near the dargah of Hazrat Pir-o-Murshid Inayat Khan , The Hope Project has grown to include schooling for hundreds of children, health care, thrift and credit, and vocational training. Some of the young men in the vocations program are learning to be tour guides and have welcomed many guests for the recent Urs presentations in February every year at the dargah.

There is great poverty in this very old neighborhood and great dignity as well. The emphasis is on education and health care for those who do not have other resources. In , Mary Shaffea Bartley also joined the Board, bringing her inspired leadership to serve this Project; and Richard began his service as Director. The goals for fundraising have been met over the past 5 years but will be increased to stabilize funding.

The children are still being fed. The school has many happy students with the goal to get basic skills to these youngsters who come from a non-academic background. The women of the basti can join a Thrift and Credit program that provides micro-finance. Vocations taught are sewing, driving and touring. Camps, weekends, special concerts, events and auctions have made The Hope Project a fundraising focus.

To expand this important work of our Silsila, we remind all to donate yearly and to remember the Hope Project in our wills. Every dollar is well spent. It is truly amazing how much work is done on such a budget! The following links for important Ruhaniat.

Therefore we are repeating them on this page:. SRI collects personal information about its members for administrative purposes and to enable SRI to communicate with its members regarding relevant issues and activities. Collection of information can be both explicit for example: volunteering personal information for the membership database and implicit for example: tracking of email sent from SRI or for SRI web site usage. SRI does not provide this information to other organizations or to non-administrative individuals within SRI, except as may be required by law or to act under exigent circumstances to protect the personal safety of its members or the public.

Whenever I hear this name my heart warms and the very sound reminds me of our connection. Read this new letter from Murshida Darvesha on the subject of financial generosity to the Ruhaniat. We welcome your contributions at any time, for any amount, and deeply appreciate your support! We invite you to become one of our monthly contributors!

Monthly contributions provide for us a dependable income stream through which we can better fulfill our mission. Consider this: Our community is formed of approximately 2, mureeds plus a large circle of friends who participate in Ruhaniat activities. How can we accomplish this? Other ways to donate include:. Consult with your legal counsel about including the Ruhaniat in your will or trust. Sufi Ruhaniat International is a tax-exempt religious non-profit organization, incorporated under the laws of California, EIN Outright gifts of appreciated securities stocks, bonds, mutual fund shares are tax deductible at full fair-market value if the donor has owned the asset for at least twelve months.

Gifts of closely held stock usually stock in a family-owned business also carry benefits for the donor. The stock must have been held for at least twelve months for you to claim a charitable deduction at full fair market value. To qualify for tax benefits, you must have owned the property for at least twelve months before giving it to the Ruhaniat. The gift may be an entire piece of property or an undivided fractional interest in it. Each proposed gift of real estate is evaluated on a case-by-case basis. If the Ruhaniat cannot use the property, it will be sold and the proceeds added to the general fund.

The owner must obtain a qualified appraisal for tax purposes. Gifts of tangible personal property, such as art, jewelry, antiques, rare books, gold or silver, may offer the donor a tax deduction at the fair market value of the property. The amount of the deduction depends on whether or not the gift is related to the Ruhaniat's legal non-profit purpose. Gifts related to our mission link to mission page generate a tax deduction for the full market value of the object as determined by a qualified independent appraiser.

The donor must provide the Ruhaniat with an appraised value for all gifts of property. Gifts of property unrelated to the Ruhaniat's non-profit purpose might not offer the donor the same tax advantage, but do benefit the Ruhaniat through the proceeds from sale. The Ruhaniat accepts contributions from your employer.

Check with your employer for more information. This site is a clearinghouse of electronic non-English translations of the teachings of Hazrat Inayat Khan, and other teachers in the Inayati lineage. At present there are offerings in 11 different languages including Spanish, German, and French, with more languages being added regularly. Use this link: ReachFarAndWide. Volunteers are sought to assist in collecting or creating additional translated materials that can be posted online. See Volunteer Service Opportunities for details.

If you have received blessing and benefit from this spiritual community, here's an important way you can say "thank you" -- the Ruhaniat needs your help! A gift of your time, skills, and heart will go a long way toward helping us meet our service goals. If you can help in one of these ways, contact This email address is being protected from spambots.

Questions regarding volunteer service are always welcomed! In the world today there are hundreds of Sufi orders and groups, some known to the world and some secret. On this Ruhaniat. If broken links are found please This email address is being protected from spambots. Annual meeting are held, with representatives from:. Threshold Society and Camille and Kabir Helminski. Sufism Symposium International Association of Sufism. Doorway Into Light : Supporting whole-hearted and sacred living and dying, recognizing death as a sacred passage and initiation; active in the Maui and global community since Golden Gate Sufi Circle : In service to the Message of Love, Harmony, and Beauty, sponsoring and supporting camps, retreats, and other gatherings in the California regional area.

Marin Sufis , the online home of Pir Shabda Kahn featuring music, photos, recorded talks, teaching schedule and more. Breath controls all aspects of life from the seen to the unseen. When breath is in the body, life is in the body; and when breath is not in the body, life is not in the body. Exhale and try to hold the thought; there will be a difference.

Thus we can learn there is an association between breath and thought, breath and life. Exhalation does not always remove all noxious gases. When it does not, some poisons are left in the body. Therefore, disciples learn to breathe with the whole body and so control inhalation and exhalation. Breath is not to be confused with air. It is something like the relation between magnetism and iron. There is magnetism apart from iron, that is to say there is energy apart from matter.

The energy connected with breath is called prana. The science of breath is called pranavada in Sanskrit and pasi anfas in the language of Sufis. What are called spirit and matter in English correspond in some respects to what are called Shiva and Shakti in Sanskrit. The body, being the temple of the Holy Spirit, has accommodation for both Shiva and Shakti.

What is called the neck center in Indian esoterics corresponds more or less to the glottis. This organ or gland sends material into the digestive tract, and spirit with air to the lungs. All bodily functions are therefore of the Shiva or Shakti varieties. Breathe, holding Darood, i. Identify yourself with the breath; identify with the Darood. This helps free you from identification with the body.

Learn to feel the life-force entering the body. Identify yourself with the breath; identify yourself with the life-force. Do not identify yourself with the body. Christ is born when breath enters the body, and Christ is crucified when one thinks of oneself. One will notice a great change. This selfthought is called nafs by Sufis and is the greatest obstacle to life and happiness.

Breathing in unison helps bring harmony. Breathing with Darood helps increase that harmony. Breathing in Darood with a common concentration, e. Notice the difference in your breathing. This subject is continued in the Commentary on The Inner Life. Disharmonies arise because of clashes in the rhythm of breath. These disharmonies can be removed by singing, dancing, devotion and esotericism.

Therefore, Sufis use Wazifas and practice Zikar, not only to bring peace and harmony to each person, but also to each group. Both inhalation and exhalation have an effect upon the atmosphere, and it can be harmonious or inharmonious in relation to the atmosphere of another. But when the Etheric element is present, it transmutes the nafs ego-mind and prevents inharmony. The Etheric breath is developed through training and Grace. Inhalation and exhalation affect and are affected by every form of thought, speech and action. The details of this are taught to Sufis in the science of Mysticism.

Life-force enters with the breath and leaves with the breath. This life-force is stored in the body. It is not the result of caloric intake through food. A stout person may obtain many calories from food without being able to utilize this in action. If the caloric theory alone were true, the stout would always be superior to the thin. Numerous violations of the Line of Control have occurred, including incursions by insurgents and Pakistani armed forces at Kargil leading to the Kargil war.

India has officially stated that it believes Kashmir to be an integral part of India, though the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh , stated after the Kashmir Unrest that his government was willing to grant autonomy to the region within the purview of Indian constitution if there was consensus among political parties on this issue. According to a poll in an Indian newspaper Indians were keener to keep control of Kashmir than Pakistanis. Michigan State University scholar Baljit Singh, interviewing Indian foreign policy experts in , found that 77 percent of them favoured discussions with Pakistan on all outstanding problems including the Kashmir dispute.

However, only 17 percent were supportive of holding a plebiscite in Kashmir. The remaining 60 percent were pessimistic of a solution due to a distrust of Pakistan or a perception of threats to India's internal institutions. They contended that India's secularism was far from stable and the possibility of Kashmir separating from India or joining Pakistan would endanger Hindu—Muslim relations in India. In , the death toll from the last 20 years was estimated by Indian authorities to be over 47, In India's Union Home Minister, Rajnath Singh , demanded that Pakistan desist from demanding a plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir, saying: 'If at all a referendum is required, it is needed in Pakistan, where people should be asked whether they want to continue in Pakistan or are demanding the country's merger with India".

Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the "jugular vein of Pakistan" [] and a currently disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir. Pakistan insists that the Maharaja was not a popular leader, and was regarded as a tyrant by most Kashmiris. Pakistan maintains that the Maharaja used brute force to suppress the population. Pakistan claims that Indian forces were in Kashmir before the Instrument of Accession was signed with India, and that therefore Indian troops were in Kashmir in violation of the Standstill Agreement , which was designed to maintain the status quo in Kashmir although India was not signatory to the Agreement, which was signed between Pakistan and the Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir.

From to , some organisations reported that the Indian Armed Forces , its paramilitary groups, and counter-insurgent militias were responsible for the deaths of 4, Kashmiri civilians. During the same period, there were records of 4, women between the ages of 7—70 being raped. Human rights organisations have strongly condemned Indian troops for widespread rape and murder of innocent civilians while accusing these civilians of being militants.

We just need to incite them," Musharraf told a TV channel. In Pakistan's outgoing National Security Advisor Sartaj Aziz said that Pakistan wished to have third party mediation on Kashmir, but it was unlikely to happen unless by international pressure. So then what is the solution? China states that Aksai Chin is an integral part of China and does not recognise the inclusion of Aksai Chin as part of the Kashmir region. Scholar Andrew Whitehead states that Kashmiris view Kashmir as having been ruled by their own in Since then, they believe, it has been ruled in succession by the Mughals , Afghans , Sikhs , Dogras and, lately, the Indian government.

Whitehead states that this is only partly true: the Mughals lavished much affection and resources on Kashmir, the Dogras made Srinagar their capital next only to their native Jammu city, and through much of the post-independence India, Kashmiri Muslims headed the state government. Yet Kashmiris bear an 'acute sense of grievance' that they were not in control of their own fate for centuries. In , Eugene Black, then president of the World Bank, offered his services to solve the tension over water control. In the early days of independence, the fact that India was able to shut off the Central Bari Doab Canals at the time of the sowing season, causing significant damage to Pakistan's crops.

Nevertheless, military and political clashes over Kashmir in the early years of independence appear to have been more about ideology and sovereignty rather than over the sharing of water resources. However, the minister of Pakistan has stated the opposite. The Indus Waters Treaty was signed by both countries in September , giving exclusive rights over the three western rivers of the Indus river system Jhelum, Chenab and Indus to Pakistan, and over the three eastern rivers Sutlej, Ravi and Beas to India, as long as this does not reduce or delay the supply to Pakistan.

India therefore maintains that they are not willing to break the established regulations and they see no more problems with this issue. The border and the Line of Control separating Indian and Pakistani Kashmir passes through some exceptionally difficult terrain. The world's highest battleground, the Siachen Glacier , is a part of this difficult-to-man boundary. Even with , military personnel, [] India maintains that it is infeasible to place enough men to guard all sections of the border throughout the various seasons of the year.

Pakistan has indirectly acquiesced its role in failing to prevent " cross-border terrorism " when it agreed to curb such activities [] after intense pressure from the Bush administration in mid The Government of Pakistan has repeatedly claimed that by constructing a fence along the line of control, India is violating the Shimla Accord. India claims the construction of the fence has helped decrease armed infiltration into Indian-administered Kashmir. India has furnished documentary evidence to the United Nations that Pakistan supports Kashmiri militants, leading to a ban on some terrorist organisations, which Pakistan has yet to enforce.

According to former Indian Prime-minister Manmohan Singh , one of the main reasons behind the conflict was Pakistan's "terror-induced coercion". He further stated at a Joint Press Conference with United States President Barack Obama in New Delhi that India is not afraid of resolving all the issues with Pakistan including that of Kashmir " but it is our request that you cannot simultaneously be talking and at the same time the terror machine is as active as ever before. Once Pakistan moves away from this terror-induced coercion, we will be very happy to engage productively with Pakistan to resolve all outstanding issues.

In , the President of Pakistan Asif Zardari asserted at a conference in Islamabad that Pakistan had indeed created Islamic militant groups as a strategic tool for use in its geostrategic agenda and "to attack Indian forces in Jammu and Kashmir". Throughout the s, the ISI maintained its relationship with extremist networks and militants that it had established during the Afghan war to utilise in its campaign against Indian forces in Kashmir.

Reportedly, about Rs. In the past, Indian authorities have alleged several times that Pakistan has been involved in training and arming underground militant groups to fight Indian forces in Kashmir. Human rights abuses such as extrajudicial killings and rapes have been committed by Indian forces in Kashmir. Militants have also committed crimes. According to Hon. Edolphus Towns of the American House of Representatives, around 90, Kashmiri Muslims have been killed by the Indian government since Of these, 21, are militants, 13, civilians killed by militants, 3, civilians killed by security forces, and 5, policemen killed by militants, according to the Jammu and Kashmir government data.

Several international agencies and the UN have reported human rights violations in Indian-administered Kashmir. In a press release the OHCHR spokesmen stated "The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is concerned about the recent violent protests in Indian-administered Kashmir that have reportedly led to civilian casualties as well as restrictions to the right to freedom of assembly and expression. Another such alleged massacre occurred on 6 January in the town of Sopore. TIME magazine described the incident as such: "In retaliation for the killing of one soldier, paramilitary forces rampaged through Sopore's market, setting buildings ablaze and shooting bystanders.

The Indian government pronounced the event 'unfortunate' and claimed that an ammunition dump had been hit by gunfire, setting off fires that killed most of the victims. However, the accused are still to be punished. Indian security forces claim they are fighting to protect Kashmiris from militants and Islamic extremists, while militants claim they are fighting for Kashmiri independence and to defend Muslim Kashmiris from an abusive Indian army.

In reality, both sides have committed widespread and numerous human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law or the laws of war. Many human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch HRW have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as "extra-judicial executions", "disappearances", and torture. Indian officials claim that troops need such powers because the army is only deployed when national security is at serious risk from armed combatants.

Such circumstances, they say, call for extraordinary measures. Human rights organisations have also asked the Indian government to repeal [] the Public Safety Act, since "a detainee may be held in administrative detention for a maximum of two years without a court order.

Some human rights organisations have alleged that Indian Security forces have killed hundreds of Kashmiris through the indiscriminate use of force and torture, firing on demonstrations, custodial killings, encounters and detentions. There have been claims of disappearances by the police or the army in Kashmir by several human rights organisations. This state action was reportedly denounced by the former National Chief Information Commissioner.

The Indian state police confirms as many as deaths while in custody and enforced disappearances since Indian security forces have assaulted civilians during search operations, tortured and summarily executed detainees in custody and murdered civilians in reprisal attacks. Rape most often occurs during crackdowns, cordon-and-search operations during which men are held for identification in parks or schoolyards while security forces search their homes.

In these situations, the security forces frequently engage in collective punishment against the civilian population, most frequently by beating or otherwise assaulting residents, and burning their homes. Rape is used as a means of targetting women whom the security forces accuse of being militant sympathizers; in raping them, the security forces are attempting to punish and humiliate the entire community. The allegation of mass rape incidents as well as forced disappearances are reflected in a Kashmiri short documentary film by an Independent Kashmiri film-maker, the Ocean of Tears produced by a non-governmental non-profit organisation called the Public Service Broadcasting Trust of India and approved by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting India.

The film depicts mass rape incidents in Kunan Poshpora and Shopian as facts and alleges that Indian Security Forces were responsible. Dr Seema Kazi holds the security forces more responsible for raping than militants due to rape by the former being larger in scale and frequency. In areas of militant activity the security forces use rape to destroy morale of Kashmiri resistance.

In the particular context of Kashmir where an ethnic Muslim minority population is subject to the repressive dominance of a predominantly Hindu State, the sexual appropriation of Kashmiri women by State security forces exploits the cultural logic of rape whereby the sexual dishonour of individual women is coterminous with the subjection and subordination of Kashmiri men and the community at large. Former Chief Justice of Jammu and Kashmir High Court noted in his report on human rights in Kashmir: "It is hard to escape the conclusion that the security forces who are overwhelmingly Hindu and Sikh, see it as their duty to beat an alien population into submission.

Some surveys have found that in the Kashmir region itself where the bulk of separatist and Indian military activity is concentrated , popular perception holds that the Indian Armed Forces are more to blame for human rights violations than the separatist groups. Amnesty International criticized the Indian Military regarding an incident on 22 April , when several armed forces personnel forcibly entered the house of a year-old woman in the village of Wawoosa in the Rangreth district of Jammu and Kashmir.

They reportedly molested her year-old daughter and raped her other three daughters, aged 14, 16, and When another woman attempted to prevent the soldiers from attacking her two daughters, she was beaten. Soldiers reportedly told her year-old daughter to remove her clothes so that they could check whether she was hiding a gun. They molested her before leaving the house. Pakistan remains accountable for abuses committed by militants that it has armed and trained.

Our people were killed. I saw a girl tortured with cigarette butts. Another man had his eyes pulled out and his body hung on a tree. The armed separatists used a chainsaw to cut our bodies into pieces. It wasn't just the killing but the way they tortured and killed. The violence was condemned and labelled as ethnic cleansing in a resolution passed by the United States Congress. According to the same resolution, since then nearly , Pandits were either murdered or forced to leave their ancestral homes.

According to a Hindu American Foundation report, the rights and religious freedom of Kashmiri Hindus have been severely curtailed since , when there was an organised and systematic campaign by Islamist militants to cleanse Hindus from Kashmir. Less than 4, Kashmiri Hindus remain in the valley, reportedly living with daily threats of violence and terrorism. On one hand the community did face intimidation and violence but on the other hand he says there was no genocide or mass murder as suggested by Pandits who are based outside of Kashmir.

The displaced Pandits, many of whom continue to live in temporary refugee camps in Jammu and Delhi, are still unable to safely return to their homeland. Reportedly, organisations trained and armed by the ISI continued this ethnic cleansing until practically all the Kashmiri Pandits were driven out after having been subjected to numerous indignities and brutalities such as rape of their women, torture, forcible seizure of property etc.


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  8. The separatists in Kashmir deny these allegations. The Indian government is also trying to reinstate the displaced Pandits in Kashmir. Tahir, the district commander of a separatist Islamic group in Kashmir, stated: "We want the Kashmiri Pandits to come back. They are our brothers. We will try to protect them.

    He says the plan was to leave Muslims alone and bulldoze them freely. Harvardian Mehboob Makhdoomi writes that human rights violations in Pakistani administered part of Kashmir are not comparable with human rights violations in Indian administered Kashmir. Claims of religious discrimination and restrictions on religious freedom in Azad Kashmir have been made against Pakistan. In , Human Rights Watch accused ISI and the military of systemic torture with the purpose of "punishing" errant politicians, political activists and journalists in Azad Kashmir.

    After the elections, Azad Kashmir Prime Minister Sardar Attique Ahmad Khan stated that there were mistakes in the voters list which have raised questions about the credibility of the elections. The area is ruled directly through a chief executive Lt. They are not granted equal rights under the law, and their educational opportunities and choice of marriage partner remain "circumscribed". Domestic violence, forced marriage, and other forms of abuse continue to be issues of concern.

    In May , the United Nations and other aid agencies temporarily suspended their work after suspected Islamists mounted an arson attack on the home of two aid workers after the organisations had received warnings against hiring women. However, honour killings and rape occur less frequently than in other areas of Pakistan.

    Scholar Sumantra Bose comments that the uprising remained restricted to the Indian side and did not spill over into Pakistani-administered Kashmir despite a lack of democratic freedoms on the Pakistani side.

    Quran recitation complete- The best English translation ِ Albaqara Full Part 1of 2 (1-2/114)

    Bose offers a number of possible explanations for this. Azad Kashmir's strong pro-Pakistan allegiances and a relatively smaller population are suggested as reasons. But Bose believes that a stronger explanation was that Pakistan had itself been a military-bureaucratic state for most of its history without stable democratic institutions. According to Bose, the Kashmiri Muslims had higher expectations from India which turned out to be a "moderately successful" democracy and it was in this context that Kashmiri Muslim rage spilled over after the rigging of the elections in The main demand of the people of Gilgit-Baltistan is constitutional status for the region as a fifth province of Pakistan.

    The region's inhabitants are embittered by Islamabad's unwillingness to devolve powers in real terms to its elected representatives, and a nationalist movement, which seeks independence, is gaining ground. The rise of sectarian extremism is an alarming consequence of this denial of basic political rights". In , the Pakistani government implemented an autonomy package for Gilgit-Baltistan, which entails rights similar to those of Pakistan's other provinces. According to Antia Mato Bouzas, the PPP-led Pakistani government had attempted a compromise between its official position on Kashmir and the demands of a population where the majority may have pro-Pakistan sentiments.

    There has been criticism and opposition to this move in Pakistan, India, and Pakistan-administered Kashmir. As with other disputed territories, each government issues maps depicting their claims in Kashmir territory, regardless of actual control. Due to India's Criminal Law Amendment Act, , it is illegal in India to exclude all or part of Kashmir from a map or to publish any map that differs from those of the Survey of India. Non-participants often use the Line of Control and the Line of Actual Control as the depicted boundaries, as is done in the CIA World Factbook , while the region is often marked out in hashmarks.

    When Microsoft released a map in Windows 95 and MapPoint , a controversy arose because it did not show all of Kashmir as part of India as per the Indian claim. India continues to assert its sovereignty or rights over the entire region of Kashmir, while Pakistan maintains that it is a disputed territory. Unofficially, the Pakistani leadership has indicated that they would be willing to accept alternatives such as a demilitarised Kashmir, if sovereignty of Azad Kashmir was to be extended over the Kashmir valley, or the "Chenab" formula, by which India would retain parts of Kashmir on its side of the Chenab river, and Pakistan the other side—effectively re-partitioning Kashmir on communal lines.

    The problem with the proposal is that the population of the Pakistan-administered portion of Kashmir is for the most part ethnically, linguistically, and culturally different from the Valley of Kashmir , a part of Indian-administered Kashmir. Partition based on the Chenab formula is opposed by some Kashmiri politicians, although others, including Sajjad Lone , have suggested that the non-Muslim part of Jammu and Kashmir be separated from Kashmir and handed to India.

    These events put pressure on Pakistan to alter its position on terrorism. These have been the respective stands of the parties for a long while, and there have been no significant changes over the years. As a result, all efforts to solve the conflict have so far proved futile. Revelations made on 24 September by the former Indian army chief General V. Singh claim that the state politicians of Jammu and Kashmir are funded by the army secret service to keep the general public calm and that this activity has been going on since Partition.

    The Freedom in the World report categorised Indian-administered Kashmir as "partly free", and Pakistan-administered Kashmir, as well as the country of Pakistan, as "not free". The Kashmir earthquake , which killed over 80, people, led to India and Pakistan finalising negotiations for the opening of a road for disaster relief through Kashmir. In , General Musharraf, as well as other Pakistani leaders, sought to resolve the Kashmir issue through the Chenab Formula road map. In the week of 10 March , 17 people were wounded when a blast hit the region's only highway overpass located near the civil secretariat—the seat of government of Indian-controlled Kashmir—and the region's high court.

    A gun battle between security forces and militants fighting against Indian rule left five people dead and two others injured on 23 March The battle began when security forces raided a house on the outskirts of the capital city of Srinagar housing militants.

    The Indian Army has been carrying out cordon-and-search operations against militants in Indian-administered Kashmir since the violence broke out in While the authorities say 43, people have been killed in the violence, various human rights groups and non-governmental organisations have put the figure at twice that number. According to the Government of India Home Ministry, was the year with the lowest civilian casualties in 20 years, with 89 deaths, compared to a high of 1, in The human rights situation improved, with only one custodial death, and no custodial disappearances.

    Many analysts say Pakistan's preoccupation with jihadis within its own borders explains the relative calm. Massive demonstrations occurred after plans by the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir state government to transfer acres 0. Such demonstrations have been aloof of the fact that the India government very regularly undertakes activities for upliftment of Muslim community as a secular government and very regularly donates lands and other properties to the systemized Waqf Boards.

    Indian security forces and the Indian army responded quickly to keep order. More than 40 unarmed protesters were killed [] [] and at least were detained. Separatists and political party workers were believed to be behind stone-throwing incidents, which have led to retaliatory fire from the police. Following the unrest in , secessionist movements got a boost.

    State elections were held in Indian administered Kashmir in seven phases, starting on 17 November and finishing on 24 December In , protests started over the alleged rape and murder of two young women in Shopian in South Kashmir. Suspicion pointed towards the police as the perpetrators. A judicial enquiry by a retired High Court official confirmed the suspicion, but a CBI enquiry reversed their conclusion. This gave fresh impetus to popular agitation against India.

    Significantly, the unity between the separatist parties was lacking this time. The All Parties Hurriyat Conference made this call to protest, citing human rights abuses by Indian troops. Protesters shouted pro-independence slogans, defied curfews, attacked security forces with stones and burnt police vehicles and government buildings. The protests subsided after the Indian government announced a package of measures aimed at defusing the tensions in September The EU would like to congratulate India and its democratic system for conduct of fair elections, unmarred by violence, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir".

    In October , Indian and Pakistani troops traded gunfire over their border in the divided Himalayan region of Kashmir, killing at least four civilians and worsening tensions between the longtime rivals, officials on both sides have said. The small-arms and mortar exchanges — which Indian officials called the worst violation of a ceasefire — left 18 civilians wounded in India and another three in Pakistan.

    Tens of thousands of people fled their homes on both sides after the violence erupted on 5 October. Official reports state that nine civilians in Pakistan and seven in India were killed in three nights of fighting. On 8 July , a militant leader Burhan Muzaffar Wani was cornered by the security forces and killed. Following his death, protests and demonstrations have taken root leading to an "amplified instability" in the Kashmir valley. Curfews have been imposed in all 10 districts of Kashmir and over civilians died and over 17, injured in clashes with the police.

    To prevent volatile rumours, cellphone and internet services have been blocked, and newspapers have also been restricted in many parts of the state. An attack by four militants on an Indian Army base on 18 September , also known as the Uri attack , resulted in the death of 19 soldiers as well as the militants themselves. Although no-one claimed responsibility for the attack, the militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed was suspected of involvement by the Indian authorities. The Indians were particularly shaken by the event which they blamed on Islamabad.

    Response took various forms, including the postponement of the 19th SAARC summit , asking the Russian government to call off a joint military exercise with Pakistan, [] and the Indian Motion Picture Producers Association decision to suspend work with Pakistan. On the Pakistani side, military alertness was raised and some Pakistan International Airlines flights suspended. The Pakistani government "denied any role in cross-border terrorism, and called on the United Nations and the international community to investigate atrocities it alleged have been committed by the security forces in Indian-ruled Kashmir".

    In the deadliest incident since , Kashmir separatist terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammed JEM carried and claimed responsibility for a suicide bomb attack on a military convoy that killed over 40 Indian soldiers on 14 February As India trespassed Pakistan's air space, the incidents escalated the tension between India and Pakistan starting the India—Pakistan standoff. In August , as Home Minister Amit Shah of India told parliament, a decree abolishing Article of the constitution that gave a measure of autonomy to the Muslim-majority Himalayan region had been signed by president and measure came into force "at once".

    Blake, Jr. That Government of India and Pakistan should make a joint request to U. Nehru's statement in the Indian Parliament, 26 June []. I want to stress that it is only the people of Kashmir who can decide the future of Kashmir. It is not that we have merely said that to the United Nations and to the people of Kashmir; it is our conviction and one that is borne out by the policy that we have pursued, not only in Kashmir but every where.

    I started with the presumption that it is for the people of Kashmir to decide their own future. We will not compel them. In that sense, the people of Kashmir are sovereign. In his statement in the Lok Sabha on 31 March as published in Hindustan Times on 1 April , Pandit Nehru said, "Kashmir is perhaps the most difficult of all these problems between India and Pakistan. We should also remember that Kashmir is not a thing to be bandied between India and Pakistan but it has a soul of its own and an individuality of its own.

    Nothing can be done without the goodwill and consent of the people of Kashmir. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. India—Pakistan conflict over the Kashmir region. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings.

    August Indo-Pakistani conflicts. Kashmir conflict War of War of War of Siachen conflict Kargil War —02 standoff standoff Border skirmishes —15 —18 Strikes Balakot Jammu and Kashmir Further information: Timeline of the Kashmir conflict. See also: History of Kashmir and Jammu and Kashmir princely state. Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of Main article: UN mediation of the Kashmir dispute. Main article: Sino-Indian War.

    Main article: Political movements in Kashmir during the Dogra rule. Main article: Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election. Main article: Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. Main article: Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus. This section may be too long and excessively detailed. Please consider summarizing the material while citing sources as needed. Main article: Kargil War. Main article: Al-Qaeda. See also: Allegations of support system in Pakistan for Osama bin Laden. This section needs additional citations for verification.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Origins of the Sino-Indian border dispute. See also: Line of Control and Siachen Conflict. Main article: Human rights abuses in Kashmir. Main article: Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir.

    Further information: Rape in the Kashmir conflict. Main article: Human rights abuses in Azad Kashmir. See also: Peacebuilding in Jammu and Kashmir. Main article: Amarnath land transfer controversy. Main article: Jammu and Kashmir state assembly elections.